Saccharomyces Boulardii
Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast, which is a type of fungus. Saccharomyces boulardii was previously identified as a unique species of yeast, but is now believed to be a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast). Saccharomyces boulardii is used as medicine. Saccharomyces boulardii is used for treating and preventing diarrhea, including infectious types such as rotaviral diarrhea in children, diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal (GI) take-over (overgrowth) by “bad” bacteria in adults, traveler's diarrhea, and diarrhea associated with tube feedings. It is also used to prevent and treat diarrhea caused by the use of antibiotics. Saccharomyces boulardii is also used for general digestion problems, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBD, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), Lyme disease, a bowel disorder called relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis, and bacterial overgrowth in short bowel syndrome. Some people use Saccharomyces boulardii for lactose intolerance, urinary tract infections (UTIs), vaginal yeast infections, high cholesterol levels, hives, fever blisters, canker sores, and teen-age acne.
Possibly effective for...
  • Prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics.
  • Prevention of traveler's diarrhea.
  • Treating diarrhea in infants.
  • Prevention of HIV-associated diarrhea.
  • Preventing recurring intestinal disease caused by a bacterium called Clostridium difficile.
  • Treating acne, in combination with other treatments.
  • Reducing side effects of treatment for the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
  • Crohn's disease. There is some evidence that Saccharomyces boulardii combined with mesalamine can help people with Crohn’s disease stay in remission longer. Remission is a period of time during which symptoms of disease are controlled. Taking Saccharomyces boulardii also seems to reduce the number of bowel movements in people with Crohn’s disease.
  • Preventing yeast infections in the digestive tract of patients with cystic fibrosis.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  • Yeast infections.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Fever blisters.
  • Canker sores.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • Ulcerative colitis.
  • Lactose intolerance.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate Saccharomyces boulardii for these uses. Saccharomyces boulardii is called a "probiotic," a friendly organism that helps to fight off disease-causing organisms in the gut such as bacteria and yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth. It can cause gas in some people. Rarely, it might cause fungal infections that can spread through the bloodstream to the entire body (fungemia). Saccharomyces boulardii is POSSIBLY SAFE for children. However, diarrhea in children should be evaluated by a healthcare professional before using Saccharomyces boulardii.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of Saccharomyces boulardii during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Weakened immune system: There is some concern that critically ill people, people who have a weakened immune system, and people who are taking medicines that alter the immune system might have an increased risk for developing a yeast infection that spreads to the bloodstream and the rest of the body (fungemia) if they take Saccharomyces boulardii. Although Saccharomyces generally doesn’t cause disease, there have been numerous cases of fungemia following its use, primarily in people with a weakened immune system.

Yeast allergy: People with yeast allergy can be allergic to products containing Saccharomyces boulardii, and are best advised to avoid these products.

Medications for fungal infections (Antifungals) Saccharomyces boulardii is a fungus. Medications for fungal infections help reduce fungus in and on the body. Taking Saccharomyces boulardii with medications for fungal infections can reduce the effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii. Some medications for fungal infection include fluconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole and others.

  • For diarrhea associated with the use of antibiotics: 250-500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii two to four times a day.
  • For diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile: 1 gram of Saccharomyces boulardii daily for 4 weeks along with antibiotic treatment.
  • For Crohn's disease:
    • 250 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii three times daily has been used for up to 9 weeks.
    • 1 gram of Saccharomyces boulardii daily in combination with usual treatment has also been used.
  • For ulcerative colitis: 205 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii three times daily.
  • For treatment of infections due to the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori bacterium: a dose of 5 billion colony-forming units (CFUs) of Saccharomyces boulardii daily in addition to usual treatment.
  • Racecadotril is an antidiarrheal drug which acts as a peripherally acting enkephalinase inhibitor. Unlike other medications used to treat diarrhea, which reduce intestinal motility, racecadotril has an antisecretory effect—it reduces the secretion of water and electrolytes into the intestine.A small randomized controlled trial found racecadotril to significantly reduce the duration and volume of watery diarrhea in children when given as an adjunct to oral rehydration therapy.
  • Pharmacodynamics.
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Racecadotril increases the availability of endogenous opioids (enkephalins) by inhibiting the membrane-bound enkephalinase. These enkephalins activate δ-opioid receptors in the GI tract. This leads to a reduction in CAMP mucosal levels, resulting in a reducted secretion of water and electrolytes in the intestinal lumen.
  • Onset Within 30 minutes. The recommended dose in children is 1.5 mg/kg of racecadotril every 8 hourly.
  • Racecadotril Adverse Reactions / Racecadotril Side Effects
  • Vomiting, nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, thirst, vertigo and headache.
  • Precautions

Oral zinc administration provides substantial benefit in the reduction of stool output, frequency and duration, combined with safety, efficacy, and affordability in acute diarrhea. Thus, it can be concluded that oral zinc supplementation is a simple and effective therapeutic intervention in the management of acute diarrhea.